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China’s foreign trade policy and schema evolution
Since the founding of the people’s basic foreign trade development in our country has experienced the following stages:
- 1, the control of foreign trade specializing in a period (1949-1978),
In the early days after foundation, and the single suitable to the national economic system of planned economy, established by the ministry of foreign trade in our country unified leadership, unified management, unified foreign trade professional companies, the mandatory plans, negative, and profit and loss of the highly centralized system of foreign trade. The foreign trade system in the specific historical conditions to avoid in China in the international balance of payments deficit, is conducive to China’s domestic market and international market (under the control of the capitalist countries) isolates any uncertainties, is helpful to control the Chinese level and composition of imports and exports, to protect national infant industry, realize the purpose of the import substitution strategy.
- 2, decentralization During the transitional period (1979-1987)
And decentralization is the main melody of foreign trade system reform during this period. At this point, the highly centralized foreign trade corporation monopoly of foreign trade of the country’s situation has been broken, the provinces and affiliated organization of foreign trade has become the main force of foreign trade activities. After and decentralization, expand the provincial foreign trade autonomy. A dramatic increase in the number of foreign trade company. According to statistics, since the second half of 1979 to 1987, the country had approved to set up all kinds of foreign trade companies, more than 2200, more than 11 times more than in 1979. However, for most production enterprises, foreign trade companies is still the only alternative to the international market.
- 3, the foreign trade contract management responsibility system (1988-1990)
Eat “Commons” system of foreign trade for many years it restricts the development of foreign trade business. Through investigation and research, the decision of the state council since 1988, the comprehensive implementation of the ministry of foreign trade contracted responsibility system. Three years of practice showed that the contract system of basic reach the expected effect. First of all, it broke the foreign trade enterprise for a long time for the country “Commons”, is a step to solve the problem has not unified situation, thus greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of all aspects, especially the local government, vigorously promote the development of foreign trade. Second, it helps to solve China’s enterprise management problems of the management system on the long term, make enterprise gradually toward the path of independent. Moreover, it promotes the trade and industry, to strengthen the international competitiveness of foreign trade enterprises.
- 4, foreign trade enterprise management mechanism transformation period (1991-1993),
This round of foreign trade system reform focused on the micro management of change, it is not only the objective requirement to establish modern enterprise system, is also a continuation of the previous phase and to delegate road. By the end of 1993, China has the right of foreign trade enterprises (not including more than 80000 enterprises with foreign investment) that have been put into operation in 8000.
- 5, new progress in foreign trade system reform period (1994-2002),
In 1994, the Chinese government began to exchange rate system as the core of a new round of reform of foreign trade system. More and more foreign trade enterprises to realize that the traditional mode of operation of foreign trade in our country must change, is characterized by the service of a stable, orderly and efficient agency system will be the development direction of foreign trade business.
- 6, after joining the WTO competition era (2002 – present)
After accession to the wto, the country to continuously expand and deepen the reform in the field of foreign trade and exports subject really entered the era of diversification, production enterprises, private enterprises and private enterprises the flood into the export enterprise team, the state-owned foreign trade companies real crisis: brain drain into the peak and declining earnings level..